|ANT 4025H F||Archaeology of Eastern North America||ARCH||11:00 – 2:00||DV2045||D. Smith||UTM|
|ANT 3005H F||Advanced Topics in Paleoanthropology||EVO||2:00 – 4:00||AP 246||B. Viola||STG|
|ANT 6004H F||Critical Issues in Ethnography II (*SCL Master’s Core Course)||SCL||2:00 – 5:00||AP 367||C. Krupa||STG|
|ANT 6003H F||Critical Issues in Ethnography I (*SCL Master’s Core Course)||SCL||2:00 – 5:00||AP 330||J. Boddy||STG|
|ANT 1000H F||Introductory Master’s Workshop – all Master’s students||10:00- 12:00||AP 246||D. Begun||STG|
|ANT 6059H F||Anthropology and History||SCL||1:00 – 3:00||VC – NF008 (Northrop Frye Hall, 73 Queen’s Pk Cres E)||I. Kalmar||STG|
|Thesis Writing Seminar||SCL||3:00 – 5:00 Every Other Tuesday starting on September 13th
||AP 102A||T. Sanders||STG|
|ANT 4060H F||Specific Problems I: Landscape and the Late Prehistory in the Southern Levant. By permission of Instructor – contact Prof. Banning at firstname.lastname@example.org||ARCH||10:00 – 12:00||AP 518-B||E.B. Banning||STG|
|ANT 7001H F||Medical Anthropology I||MED||12:00 – 2:00||AP 367||B. Dahl||STG|
|ANT 4044H F||Interregional Interaction in the Ancient World||ARCH||1:00 – 4:00||AP 140||J. Jennings||STG|
|ANT 6040H F||Research Design and Fieldwork Methods (*SCL PhD Core Course)||SCL||2:00 – 4:00||AP 367||H. Luong||STG|
|ANT 3047H F||Evolutionary Anthropology Theory (*EVO Core Course)||EVO||2:00 – 4:00||AP 246||S. Pfeiffer||STG|
|ANT 3034H F||ADV Research Seminar: Anthropology of Infectious Disease||11:00 – 1:00||AP 367||M. Mant||STG|
|ANT 6006H F||Genealogies of Anthropological Thought (*SCL PhD Core Course)||SCL||2:00 – 4:00||AP 367||F. Cody||STG|
|ANT 4042H F||Archaeology of Complex Hunter Gatherers||ARCH||2:00 – 4:00||AP 140||G. Coupland||STG|
Courses of Interest in Other Departments
|RLG 2086H F||Fieldwork in Religious Studies||Dept of RLG||MON 3:00 – 5:00||JHB 317||A. Mittermaier||STG – FALL|
Winter 2017 – Classes start on January 9, 2017
|ANT 6055H S||Anthropology of Subjectivity and Personhood||SCL||12:00 – 3:00||AP 367||Daswani / Napolitano||STG|
|ANT 3046H S||Paleoecology in Primate and Human Evolution||EVO||3:00 – 5:00||AP 367||M. Silcox||STG|
|ANT 6031H S||ADV Research Seminar I: Memory, time||SCL||4:00 – 7:00||AP 246||K. Kilroy-Marac||STG|
|ANT 5150H S||Nation, State and Language in Francophone Canada||SCL||10:00 – 12:00||AP 367||M. Heller||STG|
|ANT 7002H S||Medical Anthropology II||MED||11:00 – 1:00||AP 362||D.Sellen||STG|
|ANT 4065H S||Specific Problems II: Archeology and Climate Change||ARCH||2:00 – 4:00||AP 246||M. Friesen||STG|
|Thesis Writing Seminar||SCL||3:00 – 5:00 Every Other Tuesday starting on January 10th
|ANT 6021H S||Political Anthropology: State, Power and Sovereignty||SCL||10:00 – 12:00||AP 367||A. Muehlebach||STG|
|ANT 4030H S||Artifacts||ARCH||10:00 – 12:00||AP 140||M. Chazan||STG|
|ANT 6033H S||ADV Research Seminar III: Unsettling Settler Colonialsim||SCL||1:00 – 3:00||AP 367||B. McElhinny||STG|
|ANT 6032H S||Medicine and Health as Epistemology, Politics, and Social Practice||3:00 – 5:00||AP 367||K. Bright||STG|
|ANT 3048H S||Primatological Theory and Methods||EVO||3:00 – 5:00||AP 140||J. Teichroeb||STG|
|ANT 6018H S||Approaches to Nature and Culture||SCL||6:00 – 8:00||TC 22 (Trinity College, 6 Hoskin Ave)||H. Cunningham||STG|
|ANT 6017H S||Post-colonial Science Studies and the Cultural Politics of Knowledge Translation||SCL||10:00 – 12:00||AP 367||S. Satsuka||STG|
|ANT 4059H S||Anthropological Understanding of Cultural Transmission||ARCH||11:00 – 1:00||AP 140||L. Xie||STG|
|ANT 3042H S||Advanced Topics in Primate Ecology||EVO||12:00 – 2:00||AP 367||S. Lehman||STG|
|ANT 6019H S||Anthropology of Neoliberalism||SCL||12:00 – 200||AP 102A||J. Song||STG|
|ANT 6030H S||Anthropology and the Ethical Imagination||SCL||2:00 – 4:00||AP 140||J. Sidnell||STG|
|ANT 4020H S||Archaeology Theory (*ARCH Core Course)||ARCH||2:00 – 5:00||AP 367||E. Swenson||STG|
Courses of Interest in Other Departments
|RLG 3290H S||Word and Worship||Dept of RLG||TUES 10:00 – 12:00||JBH 214||S. Coleman||STG – WINTER|
* CORE COURSE – see 2016 – 2017 Anthropology Graduate Handbook for program specific course requirements
|Last Updated: December 13, 2016|
In this course we will survey the state-of-the-art in paleoanthropology, concentrating on major discoveries and interpretations that help to reconstruct the fossil evidence for human evolution. The course will look at our evolution from the emergence of the genus Homo through the “Muddle in the Middle” to the origin of modern humans. Students will be responsible for presenting a short lecture on a taxon, time period or event and will direct the discussion of publications that they will assign, in consultation with the instructor. Students will also prepare a meetings style presentation on a topic to be determined in consultation with the instructor. The grading scheme is as follows: Lecture-30%, Presentation-30%, Participation-40%.
Contemporary society is obsessed with killer germs, epidemics, and pandemics. This course will consider the origins, antiquity, biology, and impact of infectious disease on human societies from an anthropological, biosocial perspective. We will explore the models and general principles of infectious disease to establish a framework for understanding plagues. Students will discuss specific diseases and plagues, both historic and contemporary, with a view to understanding why they emerge (and potentially re-emerge), how their occurrence is intimately linked to human behavior, how they affect the human body, and how they transform societies.
This seminar will meet weekly to discuss topics and “issues of the week.” In the first meeting students will sign up to lead upcoming seminars (responsibilities include selecting additional readings to those assigned, preparing discussion questions, facilitating discussion). Each student will prepare a one-page response to the week’s topic. Students will prepare a final research paper (topics to be determined in consultation with the instructor) and present their results in a meetings-style presentation.
This graduate seminar focuses on advanced topics in primate ecology. Specifically, topics will focus on how ecological theory relates directly to field work on extant and extinct (fossil) primates and their habitats. Topics include landscape approaches to primate biogeography, how forestry influences primate diversity and abundance, application of biochemical techniques in studies of the ecology of extinct (fossil) and extant primates, and how primates respond to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. The seminar activities include both oral and written analyses of research articles. Critical discussion of research methods is an important component of the course.
Paleoecology is the study of the relationship between animals and their environment in the past. This course will consider the problem of reconstructing ecological variables relevant to extinct primates, including humans. The first half of the course will examine different methodologies for reconstructing ecological variables in the Cenozoic (last 65 million years). Topics will include stable isotope analysis, sampling issues, and reconstructing autecological variables such as diet and locomotion. The second half of the course will focus on particular localities that have been studied using a variety of methods as case studies. The format of the course will include seminar style discussions, student presentations, and some lecturing.
The course is an intensive exploration of the ideas that form the foundation and leading concepts in evolutionary anthropology; historically important readings and current concepts will be presented and discussed in the context of research, including areas of population biology, evolution of our lineage, broadly framed.
In this course, we will begin by examining seminal theoretical works and methodological advancements in animal behavior and other fields that shaped the discipline of primatology. We will then move on to cover current issues in primatology. Given the breadth of the field, topics may include ecology, population biology, social behavior, cognition, genetics, and conservation. Students will present and discuss articles at weekly meetings, with a strong focus on class participation, and a final paper will be required.
This seminar offers an in-depth examination of the history of archaeological theory and the major theoretical approaches defining the discipline today. Students will become familiar with competing schools of archaeological thought concerned with the study of material culture, past social formations, and historical process. These perspectives will run the gamut from functionalist and natural science paradigms to postmodern (post-processual) investigations of meaning, representation, and politics. Students will come to appreciate how changing discourses on human nature, social organization, alterity, gender, and power have directly shaped archaeological representations of past cultural traditions. Important themes to be addressed throughout the duration of the seminar, specific to problems of archaeological practice, include materiality, spatiality, historicity, and hermeneutics. Ultimately, the seminar should provide students with a rich understanding of the theoretical frameworks that underpin contemporary archaeological research and the unique problems inherent in archaeological efforts to represent and interpret the material record.
The Eastern Woodlands area of North America was the setting for distinctive cultural developments during the time period from c. 12,000 years ago until European contact 400 to 500 years ago. This course will examine these developments through application of the principles of scientific archaeology, using the Great Lakes region and southern Ontario as specific examples. Topics covered will include earliest inhabitants, hunter-gatherer-fisher lifeways, the origins of food production, development of village-dwelling tribal communities, and first contact with Europeans.
The course will follow a seminar format, where the class will meet to discuss a particular topic. For each of these meetings, a team of students will be responsible for researching the topic in some detail and presenting a summary, while the rest of the class will be responsible for preparing questions for discussion. Each student will also submit a 1-2 page summary of each week’s discussion. In addition, each student will prepare one research paper for submission. The paper will require the student to formulate a major topic for detailed investigation, write a paper on the research, and present the results to the class
Artifacts occupy an ambiguous position somewhere between nature and culture, virtual and real, humanity and nature. The course will combine extensive reading in theoretical literature from anthropology and related disciplines including cognitive science and philosophy with applied research projects on a class of artifacts from either contemporary or archaeological context. The goal of this course is to work towards a broadly based anthropological approach to artifacts.
My own interest in artifacts is from the perspective of my research as an archaeologist. However, this is not intended to be a course in archaeology. Students from across anthropology and from other fields are encouraged to bring their perspectives and interests.
Complex hunter-gatherers challenge traditional anthropological theory concerning the importance of agriculture to the emergence of cultural complexity. Complex hunter-gatherers – those societies with high population densities, sedentary settlement, developing political economies, and most importantly, pronounced social inequality – have been recorded ethnographically in a few areas of the world, particularly in the Pacific Northwest, but were otherwise thought to have been rare and anomalous. Recent archaeological studies show, however, that complex hunter-gatherers may have been much more common in the more distant past. In this course we will consider the meaning of complexity, look at the factors that are prerequisite to complexity among hunter-gatherers, and examine the ways in which complexity is maintained in hunting and gathering societies. We will also look at how archaeologists recognize evidence of complexity in the archaeological record. Finally, we will examine several case studies (in the form of student presentations) of complex hunter-gatherers from around the world.
ANT 4044H F – Interregional Interaction in the Ancient World (J. Jennings) (return to timetable)
Since at least the Lower Paleolithic Period, interregional interaction has been fundamental to the development of cultures from around the world. The movement of ideas, people, and objects across vast areas is not confined to the modern era, and in this course we will explore the role that interregional interaction has played in many of the most important processes in human history like the dispersal of Homo Erectus, the beginnings of social inequality, the origins of agriculture, the birth of cities, and the spread of civilizations. The course is run as a discussion seminar and readings for the course will consist largely of case studies from around the world and across time. The major requirement for the course is a 20-25 page research paper that explores how changes in interregional interaction changed society in one particular region of the world (50% of grade). Students will also submit a reading report for 7 of the weeks in the course. The one page, single spaced report will distill the critical elements of each reading and link them to the broader themes of the course (20% of grade). Each student will also be responsible for organizing discussion questions for one day of class (10%), as well as for regular participation and attendance (10%).
Cultural transmission is the reproduction of information and practices in the forms of ideas, behaviors, and/or materials through social learning among intra-generational individuals, between societies, and from one generation to the next. The topic of cultural transmission has received increasing interest in many disciplines, such as biology, anthropology, sociology, psychology, and education.
This course examines the means of cultural transmission in both humans and non-humans. We will use case studies from multiple disciplines to discuss the biological and cognitive foundations of cultural transmission and the roles of cultural transmission in shaping behavioral patterns. Students should leave this course with a new understanding of the similarities and differences between human and non-human communities, and with a better understanding of the diversity, continuity and changes in our cultures over generations.
ANT 4060HF – Specific Problems I: Landscape and the Late Prehistory in the Southern Levant (T. Banning) TBA (return to timetable)
Evidence from the natural sciences for past and present climate change is overwhelming. However, its deployment as an explanatory framework in archaeology is inconsistent – on the one hand, climate change must have had profound impacts on many past human societies; but on the other, archaeologists are justifiably wary of automatically pinning changes in past lifeways on external environmental forces, rather than seeking “internal” political, social, and ideological explanations. Currently, archaeological investigations of climate change impacts are experiencing a surge of interest, at least in part because of the prominence of modern climate change in public political, social, and economic discourse. As a global community, we are worried about it! Many major past phenomena, from hunter-gatherer migrations through agricultural origins to the rise and demise of state-level societies have been hypothesized to result, often quite directly, from changing climates (though of course other explanations also exist). At the same time, climate change archaeology is becoming increasingly sophisticated, particularly in terms of understanding the mechanisms through which aspects of climate/weather and human lifeways are intertwined. To begin to come to grips with these issues, this survey course will cover: 1) general approaches to studying climate change in relation to past human lifeways; 2) case studies in which climate change is hypothesized to have had direct impacts on past societies; 3) the impacts of modern climate change on the archaeological record; and 4) the relationship of archaeology as a discipline to broader considerations of current and future climate change.
ANT 5150H S – Nation, State and Language in Francophone Canada (M. Heller)(return to timetable)
This course will offer a linguistic anthropological approach to understanding ideologies and practices of language, identity, nation and state in francophone Canada, and more broadly in francophone North America, with attention to imperialism, colonialism, modernity and globalization. It will cover the period from French colonization (New France) to the present, covering language ideological debates and discursive struggles for power, as well as the boundaries, erasures, and exclusions they produce. There will be opportunities for empirical investigation, whether historical or contemporary.
‘Ethnography’ is at once a (relatively disciplined) practice of interpersonal engagement, and the results of this practice conveyed and transformed through writing. In this course we examine books variously positioned within the realm of ‘ethnography’ in an effort to become more familiar with what the genre entails. The selected texts are thematically linked by concerns for place, time, subject/person, power and subjugation. Each provides a point of departure for exploring a range of ethnographic methods and theoretical models. We examine issues such as authorial positioning and voice, use of ‘plot’, narrative style, characterization, and representation, all the while attending to the means by which the ethnography was produced and its historical and intellectual context.
This course is organized around a close reading of ethnographic texts, old and new, genre-defining and genre-bending. It asks about the different ends for which anthropologists write, the changing nature of ethnographic authority, and the relationship between data, theory, and style in the presentation of fact and argument in anthropological writing. A core goal of this course is to increase the enjoyment we derive from reading ethnography. Our route to this is through an appreciation of the content and context of very different sorts of texts as well as the dialogues we construct between them. From this we will ask about the politics of fieldwork and textual representation, consider issues of authorial responsibility (to those we study, our colleagues, and readers), and try to get a sense of the major debates that have occurred in anthropology over these matters. What, ultimately, defines the genre of ethnography and what distinguishes it from other sorts of texts? What do ethnographies ask of us, and what goes into their making? To what extent have the core objects of ethnographic inquiry changed over the years? Must they be centrally concerned with people? How many? How do ethnographers research and write about the larger forces (historical, political, economic) impinging upon the places and people they study? What are ethnography’s limits? This course repeats ANT 6003 and gives preferential enrollment to Anthropology MA students.
This course is intended primarily for PhD students
This course is intended to acquaint students with an intellectual history of socio-cultural and linguistic anthropology (SCL). This is a large and multifaceted topic, and thus this course cannot pretend to be a comprehensive mapping of the subfield. Rather, it considers key intellectual movements and controversies, and it is intended to provide students with both an understanding of foundational texts within SCL, and a grasp of historical relationships between different theories and paradigms. Ultimately the aim of the course is to equip students with the ability to conceptualize and frame a problem within the broader history of SCL. Topics may include: structural-functionalism, structuralism, interpretive anthropology, Marxist anthropology and political economy, critiques of colonialism, and globalization.
The course interrogates the politics of cultural translation by exploring the intersection of the emerging field of postcolonial science studies and anthropology of knowledge production. Cultural translation has been the foundational to the production of anthropological knowledge, and anthropological inquiries have increasingly concerned with the encounter of Western technoscience and different knowledge systems. The interdisciplinary field of Science and Technology Studies (STS) examines techno-science as a product of “translation” of socially and culturally specific practices and explores how the development of technoscience is related to the political, economic and socio-cultural situations in specific historical context. Recently, within STS, the necessity of the postcolonial approaches to science has been advocated. With the aid of critical literary theories, the course explores how anthropology and postcolonial science studies can benefit from each other by interrogating the concrete examples of knowledge translation.
“Nature,” Raymond Williams wrote in Keywords, “is perhaps the most complex word in the language.” He notes that “…any full history of the uses of nature would be a history of a large part of human thought” (1987:219-21).
This course explores the ways in which the category of “nature” has been generated, contested, and re-fashioned by various thinkers who, in large part, make up a “canon” (i.e., an “assemblage”) of environmental thought. Through readings that encompass often quite substantially different approaches, this course seeks to engender discussion and debate about “nature” and its relation to other key concepts and approaches in social theory. Although the course adopts a roughly chronological and thematic framework, the readings have been specifically selected to draw out and investigate the contributions of different voices, and, consequently, to invite students into conversations with them.
The course deliberately engages with fiction and non-fiction and explores analytical themes of “borders,” “interfaces” and “entanglements”—that is, boundary-making as itself a multi-faceted encounter with “nature” and one which ultimately generates certain types of human-nature interactions while excluding or marginalizing other kinds. Because “borders” can encompass geophysical spaces, metaphysical categories, ecological zones, as well as human and non-human actors, we will be focusing on “nature” itself as a kind of borderscape.
The 2008 Global Financial Crisis gave anthropologists a crucial opportunity to participate in the production and circulation of knowledge about finance– that is, about finance capital, financial markets, and financialization (Elyachar and Maurer 2009, Hart and Ortiz 2008). While acknowledging the challenge of understanding financial market mechanisms and terminology, researchers in economic anthropology and the anthropology of finance appeal to anthropology for a more pro-active attitude.
They ask how anthropology can contribute to understanding the current financialized socio-culture and political-economy and suggest that research on gift, money, and value can guide us to new insights on global finance. Upon their call, his class will critically engage in the economic anthropological literature dealing with gift, money, sociality, market, and value, combining interdisciplinary perspectives on finance within anthropology and beyond
This course examines anthropological approaches to the production and reproduction of political power, authority, and legitimacy. Traditionally, anthropology sought to approach the study of political processes from the perspective of “stateless” societies. The goal was to destabilize ideas of “the state” by studying how people organize their political lives at its margins. Anthropologists have more recently begun to explore different modalities and histories of statehood and statecraft as well as questions of state absence and abandonment, including alternative forms of sovereignty, violence, and benevolence in different parts of the world. Readings may rang e from classical ethnographies of “stateless” societies to contemporary explorations of genealogies of power/knowledge, the interplay of formal/informal sovereignties, and how such forms of authority unfold through micro-political practices. The course should be of interest to M.A. and PhD students seeking a deeper understanding of the structures of authority that shape their own lives and the lives of the people they study.
Through a reading of three ethnographies along with some classic and recent writing in philosophy and social theory, this course considers what has been described to as “the ethical turn” in contemporary social and cultural anthropology. The course is organized around a series of questions. What is ethics and how can we distinguish it from morality or, indeed, from sociality and social norms? What, if any, importance do philosophical theories such as utilitarianism, Kantian deontology and virtue ethics have for the anthropologist? How are “big ethical questions” (e.g. abortion, war, punishment, human rights) related to the ethics of everyday life? What does it mean to live ethically or to live an ethical life? In what ways do persons contribute to their own constitution as ethical subjects? Can we discern in the social lives of the people we study distinctively ethical projects as opposed to political or aesthetic ones? What role does self-reflection play in our lives as social beings, i.e. is ethical thought necessarily self-reflective? What are the limits of social life and how do ethical projects that have as their goal detachment, renunciation, self-effacement or self-abnegation fit with broader social norms? Is it possible (or advisable) to adopt a relativist perspective on ethical life? What is the relation between ethics and religion? How did selflessness and altruism come to occupy a central place within much ethical thinking?
In this course, we look at potential links between the ethnography of health and broader inquiries into the nature of the body and the self by writers such as Merleau-Ponty, Mol, Butler, Foucault, Rose, and Lears. How are theorizations of materiality, desire, affect, faith, commodity, mobility, rationality, and temporality transforming medical anthropology and the objects it takes up? How can these ideas help us engage with new and old ethnographic objects such as digital technology, disability, diet, wellness, addiction, ethics, traditional medicine, biomedicine, bureaucracy, governance, and the post-human? The theoretical and ethnographic texts we engage in the course will offer points of insertion that students can engage in their own thinking and writing. In addition to weekly critical responses, students will prepare a final paper to be presented in a mini-symposium at the end of the course.
This course is designed for graduate students in sociocultural and linguistic anthropology who plan to write their research proposals and to design their field projects in the near future. It will examine different kinds of fieldwork design and data collection techniques.
Personhood, subjectivity and human nature lies at the heart of anthropology inquiry: the meaning and relationship of self and other; how representations of human nature have developed and have shaped an imagination of a (Western) anthropos; the tensions between universality, particularity and singularity; the exchange between humans and non-humans. This course addresses the place of personhood and subjectivity from debates around themes such as the “Religious Subject”, the “Precarious Subject” and “Beyond-the-Subject”. The goal of the course is to introduce students to theoretical frameworks that have effectively been employed by anthropologists when studying personhood, subject and human nature, and also to think them through themes such as ‘will’, ‘blood’ and ‘cannibalism’. This course will be run as a seminar with evaluation based on participation, one oral presentation, weekly reports, and a final paper.
Historical perspectives in anthropology and ethnographic approaches to history. We study the history of the closely related constructions of race, religion, language, culture, and nation (and implicitly related constructions like gender) starting from the late eighteenth century, and examine the traces and transformations of that history, as recognized in contemporary anthropological work in postcolonial societies and among indigenous populations and migrants in the West. We examine the historical effects of material inventions (money, paper, digital data storage and processing) on both society and on the nature of anthropological research.
This course provides an introduction into some of the main preoccupations of sociocultural medical anthropology. We seek to grapple with the theoretical and methodological concerns that dominate the field today, many of which have broader implications for anthropology and related fields. Readings will focus primarily on two threads of research: critical medical anthropology (which explores the cross-cultural experiences of human suffering and subjectivity; the interactions between poverty and health inequalities; the dimensions of political economy as they affect medicine, health, healing, and “the body” more broadly, etc.), and the field of science and technology studies (STS) as it relates to medical anthropology (including concerns about biopower / biopolitics; how technological advances in the genomic age have reconfigured scientific knowledge about race; the domination of pharmaceuticals and their role in creating new categories of disease and medicalized consumers of treatment). Reading these threads of work alongside each other, we will probe questions of method, ethics, theory, representation, and the challenges of rendering suffering and subjectivity.
ANT 7002H S – Medical Anthropology II (D. Sellen) (return to timetable)
Humans are exquisitely social animals and shared care of young is crucial to survival and adult functioning. In this class we explore perspectives generated by anthropologists, international public health practitioners and others interested in variation in childcare practices and its social determinants and health effects. We review the variety of forms of infant and young child care across space and time, and consider the complex, bi-directional and biocultural relationships between care and health in different social and ecological settings.
This course is primarily designed for MA and PhD students in religious studies whose research involves fieldwork. It addresses current debates about concepts such as “the field,” evidence, scale, and ethnography, as well as practical issues, such as research design, ethical matters, interview techniques, and writing field notes.
RLG3290H S – ‘Word and Worship’ – (S. Coleman) (return to timetable)
How are we to analyze the words that Christians use? How might oral forms compare with written ones? And how should we try to understand the relationships between religious language and ritual action without seeing one as merely derived from the other? This course provides the opportunity both to explore theories of language use and to apply them to forms of verbal discourse ranging from prayers, sermons, speaking in tongues, and citing biblical verses to more informal narratives. Protestant and Catholic attitudes to religious language are examined in ways that sometimes reinforce, something challenge, theological distinctions between the two, and there will be the opportunity for students to bring their own texts (possibly derived from their own proposed areas of research) for analysis. Various techniques for the analysis of ritual texts are explored and evaluated, and the advantages and disadvantages of close textual analysis are discussed. While I will be presenting techniques of ‘reading’ texts derived mostly from social scientific literatures, you are welcome to incorporate other methods as appropriate